Definitions and classifications

The AIAAIC Repository (sheet and website) is managed in line with the definitions below.

Please note that the current taxonomy is non-hierarchical, non-exhaustive, and contains overlaps. 

The AIAAIC taxonomy is shortly to be revised.


Examples: Google GoEmotions dataset mis-labelling; People in Photo Albums (PIPA) dataset; Stanford University

Brainwash cafe facial recognition dataset







System name


Advertising management system; Advertising authorisation system; Age detection; Anomaly detection; Augmented reality (AR); Automatic identification system (AIS); Automated license plate/number recognition (ALPR, ANPR); Behavioural analysis; Biodiversity assessment algorithm; Blockchain; Border control system; Bot/intelligent agent; Chatbot; Collaborative filtering; Colourisation; Computer vision; Content labelling system; Content ranking system; Content recommendation system; Credit score algorithm; Data matching algorithm; Decision support; Deepfake - video, audio, image, text; Deep learning; Diversity Recognition; Driver assistance system; Drone; Emotion detection; Emotion recognition; Environmental sensing; Expert system; Facial analysis; Facial detection; Facial identification; Facial recognition; Fingerprint biometrics; Gait recognition; Generative adversarial network (GAN); Gender detection; Gesture recognition; Gun/weapons detection; Gunshot detection; Heart rate variability algorithm; Image classification; Image segmentation; Image recognition; Learning management system; Link blocking; Location tracking; Location recognition; Machine learning; Mask recognition; Neural network; NLP/text analysis; Object detection; Object recognition; Order matching algorithm; Palm print scanning; Pattern recognition; Pay algorithm; Performance scoring algorithm; Personality analysis; Prediction algorithm; Pricing algorithm; Probabilistic genotyping; Rating system; Recommendation algorithm; Reinforcement learning; Resource assessment algorithm; Risk assessment algorithm; Robotic Process Automation (RPA); Robotics; Routing algorithm; Safety management system; Saliency algorithm; Scheduling algorithm; Search engine algorithm; Self-driving system; Signal processing; Social media monitoring; Sleep sensing; Smile recognition; Speech-to-text; Speech recognition; Suicide prevention algorithm; Text-to-image; Triage algorithm; Virtual currency; Virtual reality (VR); Vital signs detection; Voice recognition; Voice synthesis; Web accessibility overlay; Workforce management system


The aim(s) of the system or dataset/database. The aim(s) may be stated, likely, or alleged, and may include: 

Rank content/search results; Recommend users/groups; Recommend content; Moderate content; Minimise mis/disinformation; Identify/verify identity; Increase productivity; Increase speed to market; Improve quality; Engage users/increase revenue; Improve customer service; Increase visibility; Increase revenue/sales; Increase engagement; Moderate content; Improve insights; Cut costs; Defraud; Scare/confuse/destabilise; Damage reputation

Media trigger

The internal or external trigger for a public issue or incident. These may take the form of one or more of the following:

Academic research paper/study/report; Artwork/prank; Audit report publication; Commercial investigation/experiment/hack; Commercial research study/report; Developer research study/report; Data breach/leak; FOI(A)/public records request; Investor presentation; Media investigation/coverage; Media report; Non-profit research study/report/investigation; Parliamentary enquiry/report; Patent application/approval; Police investigation/arrest; Product demonstration/release/launch; Professional body paper/study/report; Public comments/complaints; Regulatory investigation/action; Regulator paper/study/report; Researcher investigation/paper/study/report; Lab/product test; Lawsuit filing/litigation; Legal communication; Legal complaint/threat; Legislative proposal; SEC/regulatory filing; Statutory body paper/study/report; User comments/complaints; Whistleblower; White-hat hack


The risks posed by the system, its governance, and the external context, or by its misuse by bad actors. 

Risks include: Deliberate development of dangerous/lethal weapons; Accidental development of dangerous/lethal weapons; Inappropriate/unethical data sharing; Inappropriate/unethical code sharing; Inappropriate/unethical model sharing

Risks include: Carbon dioxide emissions; Water consumption; Water pollution; Waste disposal; Hazardous materials disposal; Ecology/biodiversity; Rare earth consumption; Local community rights and freedoms

Risks include: Appropriateness/need; Business model; Capabilities/skills; Capacity/resources; Competition/collusion; Complaints/appeals; Conflicts of interest; Dual/multi-use; Effectiveness/value; Hypocrisy; Incentivisation; Inclusiveness/diversity; Leadership understanding/support; Oversight/review; Ownership/accountability; Purpose; Risk management; Scope creep/normalisation; Supply chain management; Values/culture/ethics

Risks include: Freedom of expression (censorship, assembly, association, petition, press, religion, speech); Freedom of information (including right to know); Right to collective action; Right to work; Right to due process; Protection of minors, elderly, and disabled people

Risks include: Training data; Algorithm design; Software guardrails; User policies/terms; Usage monitoring; Usage enforcement; Complaints/appeals process

Risks include: Addiction; Anxiety/depression; Self-harm/suicide; Radicalisation; Hate speech/violence; Harassment/abuse; Intimidation; Shaming; Stalking

Risks include: 


(Harm data is only available to Premium Members.)


Harms include: Damage to physical property; Damage to physical health and safety; Psychological damage; Personal agency/autonomy loss; Chilling effects; Discrimination; IP and identity loss; Personal data loss; Limitation or loss of rights and freedoms; Financial loss; Reputational damage


Harms include: Legal complaint/filing; Litigation; Regulatory inquiry/investigation; Legislative inquiry; Legislative questions/complaints. 

Last updated: May 23, 2023