Ethereum crypto minting, trading environmental damage
Released: July 2015
Launched in 2015, Ethereum is an open-source, decentralised blockchain which hosts its native cryptocurrency Ether, as well as third-party decentralised applications, including non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and ERC-20 tokens.
Ethereum 1.0 launched using a proof-of-work cryptographic verification system that attracted considerable criticism for its huge energy demands.
Specific areas of concern about Ethereum 1.0 included:
In September 2022, Ethereum transitioned to a proof-of-stake system, cutting its energy use by an estimated 99.95%.
Ethereum. The Merge
Ethereum. Ethereum's energy expenditure
Neumueller A. (2023). Blockchain sustainability beyond Bitcoin: Ethereum under the microscope
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (2022). CLIMATE AND ENERGY IMPLICATIONS OF CRYPTO-ASSETS IN THE UNITED STATES (pdf)
Investigations, assessments, audits
News, commentary, analysis
Published: September 2023